All you need to do is follow the map markers during the quest "All of My Friends Have Off Switches."
The exact locations for each item, in the order that I found them, are as follows:
1) Sink Central Intelligence Unit: The Sink, given automatically at start of "All My Friends Have Off Switches" quest)
2) Sink: Magnetohydraulics Complex inside room to the left when you first enter on desk
3) Biological Research Station: X-22 Botanical Garden, by hot plate and duffel bag by entryway
4) Light Switch 01: X-2 Transmitter Antenna Array, to the left on a desk after entering, ground floor
5) Toaster: The Cuckoo's Nest, by a shrine on the right hand side of the cave with skulls and candles [Beware: I ended getting a corrupted autosave here that froze my console. It worked fine when I tried a second time. Just save to be safe!]
6) Auto Doc: Y-17 Medical Facility, second floor on the left after entering on top of a desk
7) Jukebox: Higgs Village, House 108, second floor in the first room
8) Book Chute: Higgs Village, House 101, second floor in the middle room on desk
9) Light Switch 02: Big MT North Tunnel, first room on the right
10) Muggy: In the bed of a truck just outside Securitron De-Construction Plant
You must then install all of the parts into their corresponding appliances. The Toaster is good for a laugh. All of these will be indicated by map markers. As long as the quest is active these are impossible to miss.
Not relevant to achievement: You can obtain all upgrades for the appliances in The Sink by completing the quests Influencing People and Field Research. The first will unlock after you earn the achievement, and the second will unlock after Influencing People is complete. Some of the auto doc implants are pretty nice, so it's worth taking the time to complete these quests.