To be able to even ring the bell you need to find Quelaag's Domain.
Firstly, starting from the bonfire in the tunnel (the second bonfire in Blighttown), you'll want to become human. I also highly recommend that you kindle the fire.
Why? because a few steps away from the bonfire, a NPC Phantom will attack you.
She is pretty easy to kill, you shouldn't have a problem, just keep your shield up and attack after she's taken a swing.
After killing her, you get her meat cleaver, BUT MORE IMPORTANTLY, you will now be able to summon her to assist you in the battle against Quelaag.
Now, actually getting to Quelaag. She isn't too far away, but the issue is getting across the swamp.
Do you see that white lump in the distance? That's where she is.
Sure, you can go all the way round taking 10 minutes and using all your Estus after the golems crush you repeatedly.
OR you can dash across, sticking to the right, only facing 3 big bugs.
Sure, you'll get poisoned. But in the grand scheme of things, this will have very little effect. It'll run out before too long.
When you get to the beach area, and enter the little cavern, abstain from attacking what appears to be 2 guys with some nasty-ass eggs on their backs. They will not attack, so long as you don't.
You will see the summon sign for the NPC you defeated earlier. Her purpose will be to divert Quelaag's attention and attacks from you, helping considerably.
Attacks (courtesy of the Dark Souls Wiki)
Slashes: She slashes either left to right or right to left. Shield or roll to avoid these. Not a huge threat.
Stab: This attack has much more range that you expect it to. Can be a significant threat.
Lava: When she pats the spiders head or the spider looks like he is going to vomit she will use this attack. She will spit lava on the ground around her, if you are far enough away she may shoot 4-5 balls of lava at you.
AoE Explosion: Whenever she reaches down the sides of the spiders head she is prepping her AoE attack. Back up keeping your shield toward her. Large Threat!!
The core strategy for fighting Quelaag is to stay to her front sides, waiting for her to spew lava so that you have time to do some damage.
She dramatically telegraphs her movies so after a few attempts there are not many moves that will surprise you.
Use the Black Knight Shield, or some other high fire resist shield, and fire resistance/physical resistance armor as this helps stop much of the damage from her fire AoE attack.
You will recieve the Soul of Quelaag. Don't use it, as with the help of a blacksmith you can re-create her sword with either a Katana or a Scimitar!
oh, you also get a nice 20,000 souls too.
Once you've done with her, you simply go up the stairs, pull the lever and net yourself 15 gamerscore!