Your innoculator has various components installed in it, some of which you may, or may not, be able to modify. Use your innoculator by pressing RB on the default controller settings, or Y on the advanced controller settings. The higher the quality of your innoculator, the more components you'll be able to install on it. Each component has a usage cost which counts against the total capacity of the innoculator, which results in how many usable charges the innoculator will have. The higher the usage cost of each component, the less usable charges you will have available, i.e. if your innoculator has a capacity of 15 and you have 3 components that cost 1 usage point each, then you get 15 divided by 3 equals 5 charges.
Now, the "booster type" components that the achievement refers to are the orange components that boost damage, critical hit chance, etc. Red components are "salve type" components for healing restoring suppression points, and green components affect the functioning of the innoculator itself to reduce cooldown , increase capacity, etc.
Any component that has a solid colored bar underneath it cannot be changed. However, any component that has a three-colored bar (red, orange, green) under it can be modified by your Magos Biologis on the right side of the command deck next to the Multiplayer console. Simply speak to her, highlight the modifiable component(s) and select an orange component to replace it. It's free, by the way, so no worries there, and you'll start unlocking additional innoculator components as you play through the game.
Now, every time you use your innoculator during missions, you'll get credit for a "boost" usage, and it seems that if you have multiple boost type components on your innoculator, you'll get credit for each orange component you have installed, even if you simply have more than one of the same booster type.Note 08/05/19: cobalos adds the following information:With the current patch at least you won't get credited for boost component usage if you put it in a slot with a three-colored bar. It must be in a designated gold-colored slot.