In my experience this is best done with the following profiles:
- Hydro Engineer, as they come with a water deposit revealed
- Astrogeologist, as extractor production increased by 10%
Once settled on the map just make sure you extract everything you can and immediately start processing the waste rock using Rare Metals Refineries, Brazil's unique building. Add another processor when needed.
Buildings that generate waste rock:
- Water extractor (requires water towers, otherwise won't extract at full capacity and thus won't generate as much waste rock)
- Concrete extractor
- Metal and Rare metal extractors (requires workforce)
Make sure you have enough drones to supply the refineries with waste-rock and to transport the resources of your extractors so they don't stop producing. It's wise to regularly export the converted rare-metals and buy some more drones and outsource research, because...
To speed it up a little you can research the Extractor Amplification tech in the physics tree to increase their production by 25% (this also increase Power consumption by 10).
You can also work your way through the tech tree to get Factory Amplification, which increases the production of your refineries by 25% (this also increases Power consumption by 20)
Late-game if you are still struggling you can research Deep Metal Extraction and Deep Water Extraction to gain access to additional resources on the map.
Rare Metals Refineries convert 10 Waste Rock into 1 Rare Metal. Therefore you need to have created 200 Rare Metals for the achievement to pop. You can track the lifetime production of the refinery by inspecting it and going to the Production section.