This one gave me a runaround for hours before I (think) I figured it out. I have a substantial number of the "Geology and anomalies" section, which is contained within the "Biological and geological" discoveries. However, the achievement didn't pop until I had five specifically in "Organic Structures". The following will be what I can discern as probably one of the quicker ways to get this achievement.
BD-12 1172, the Spirograph Nebula, contains at least: Solid Mineral Spheres, Lattice Mineral Spheres, Flavus Metallic Crystals, Rubeus Metallic Crystals, and Viridans Gourd Molluscs. You'll see some "Notable Stellar Phenomena" in the sidebar after a discovery scan. Each one contains a different mix of the required phenomena. Being about 1100ly from popular destinations Shinrarta and Sol, it's probably one of, if not the, best choices to get this knocked out quick. Because of the permit locked systems sometimes screwing up the routing, you may need to get a bit close to the nebula before actually making a route directly to the system.
If you have any issues or additions, lemme know. It may be only biological ones count, or you could need five from both biological and geological (ergo, maybe that or was supposed to be an and). Be helpful to know for sure. Duly note that scanning the actual phenomena themselves is performed with the composition scanner, and a Detailed Surface Scanner can reveal phenomena from orbit, supposedly (never tested this myself).