The Wasteland Survival Guide quest is picked up from Moira in Megaton. The Guide contains 3 chapters, each with 3 missions. You start with Chapter 1, but can choose which missions you want to do first. Each mission contains a Main Objective and an Optional Objective. With a high enough Speech level, quite a few of these can be skipped by lying to Moira about them. However, you may not be as highly rewarded if you do so.
Find food at the Super Duper Mart
Main Objective: Find food at the Super Duper Mart.
Optional Objective: Find medicine at the Super Duper Mart.
Contract Radiation Sickness
Main: Contract 200 Rads.
Optional: Contract 600 Rads.
Traverse a Mine Field
Main: Travel to the playground in the middle of Minefield.
Optional: Collect and return a Frag Mine to Moira.
Test the repellent on Mole Rats
Main: Test the Mole Rat Repellent on 3 Mole Rats.
Optional: Test repellent on an additional 7 Mole Rats.
Place an Observer Unit inside a Mirelurk nest
Main: Moira will give you an Observer Unit. Place the unit inside a Mirelurk Egg Clutch in the Anchorage Memorial.
Optional: Do the main objective without killing a Mirelurk.
Acquire injuries that are more than 50% of your total health
Main: Return to Moira with less than 50% of your total health.
Optional: Return to Moira with a crippled body part.
Research Rivet City's history
Main: Find out the history of Rivet City.
Optional: Find out the true history of Rivet City.
RobCo Production Facility Mainframe
Main: Moira will give you a Processor Widget to install in the RobCo production facility mainframe.
Optional: Hack the RobCo production facility mainframe.
Arlington Public Library
Main: Access the Card Catalog in the Arlington Public Library.
Optional: Retrieve the entire Library Archive.
Completion of the Wasteland Survival Guide quest will grant you many rewards and more importantly, you will gain the Survival Expert perk. The perk will have various stats depending on how you completed the quest. All levels of the perk consist of some type of Poison and Radiation Resistance.
If you have a high enough Speech level when you begin this quest, you can talk Moira out of doing the guide to receive the Dream Crusher perk. This will reduce an enemies' chance of a critical hit by 50% and give you a discount at Moira's. Note, this will complete the quest but will also result in Negative Karma.
For further information on how to complete the various missions, go to http://fallout.wikia.com