Noticed there is no solution as yet, so I've a very general guide on how to complete most of the campaign missions.
1 - pick a suitable El Presidente for the mission
eg If it's an oil based campaign, select oil tycoon. If it's a tourism based campaign, select travel agent.
Hardworking / Entrepreneur / Diplomat are generally decent traits to have
Cheapskate / Womaniser / Flatulent are all decent flaws to take, with little drawback
2 - Begin by getting a cash generating crop going
The exact crop will vary from island to island, but mines (iron / bauxite / gold) are relatively cheap and easy to start with, as are coffee / sugar / tobacco farms. Check using the overlays tab to find your best option.
3 - Build a high school
The most important step of all. You can't develop industry / a middle class without one. You'll usually have a high school educated islander who will become the first teacher, so don't worry about hiring a foreigner (but check the almanac to make sure)
4 - Start an industry
Time to start making some money. Build a suitable industrial building, depending on which cash crop you have gone for. Rum Distillery / Cannery / Cigar Factory / Jewellery Factory are all good options.
At this stage, you'll also want a diplomatic ministry to keep the US / Soviets off your back, and depending on the map, an immigration office may also be useful.
Around this time, you'll also want to build a church to keep the religious happy. Ideally, you can also issue the 'USSR development Aid' edict to give you a discount on housing, and then build a few tenements / apartments to keep the people happy.
5 - Build your defences
By this stage, you'll probably have some stroppy rebels and / or a coup looking likely. Increase the wages of your soldiers, and build a college. You'll then usually need to hire a college graduate from abroad. As soon as the college is complete, build an armory, and a couple of guard posts which should prevent any immediate dangers. An Army base and the 'military modernisation' edict will then pretty much guarantee your long term safety, and allow you to go on and win the game
6 - General points
Pay your builders / dockers well, as them going missing is a bad thing.
Make sure you have enough garages available, so you don't have resources left untransported
As a food guideline, 1 farm / ranch / fishery per 50 people isn't a bad start. Remember any 'extras' will be exported, so you aren't wasting anything.