There are 15 different resources or raw materials in the game and not all of them can be found on Sylva, the starting planet so you're going to have to build a shuttle and visit some other planets.
Make sure that you actually harvest some of each resource with the terrain tool. Using the soil centrifuge, finding resources in wrecked space ships or mining with a rover & drill combo doesn't count.
The resourses are:
Astronium - found near the core of most planets.
Lithium - Found on Vesania & Novus)
Laterite (smelts to Aluminium)
Sphalerite (smelts to Zinc) - Found on Sylva & Desolo
Malachite (smelts to Copper) - Found on Sylva & Calidor
Wolframite (smelts to Tungsten) - Found on Desolo & Calidor
Hermatite (smelts to Iron) - Found on Novus & Glacio
Titanite (smelts to Titanium) - Found on Vesania & Glacio
The achievement didn't unlock for me when I though it would, when I finally found Titanite on Vesania. For some reason the game didn't count the Malachite I'd gathered on Sylva. I had to go to Calidor and dig up some Malachite there to unlock this achievement. The same thing happened with smelting copper, it didn't count the stuff I produced on Sylva only the nuggets I made on Calidor.